How far should the law guarantee individuals the right to wear clothes that demonstrate their religious belief? That question has, for some years, been controversial. Recently the European Court of Justice decided two cases, both concerning Muslim women who had been dismissed because they wanted to wear a headscarf. In one (Case C-188/15, Bougnaoui) the employee scored a narrow victory; in the other (Case C-157/15, Achbita) a defeat. How should one explain the difference between the results? And which tells us more about the court’s approach?
The basic framework of analysis is the same in both cases. Directive 2000/78 prohibits direct or indir...
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